Ankle Platform Heels Latasa High Pumps strap White Women's apvHxO Approximations and strange things about Pi
This page is devoted to the rational and irrational approximations which are nearest to Pi. And there are some great ones ! Not to mention some approximate curiosities concerning Pi.
Indeed, since people realised that there was a constant that defined the ratio of the perimeter of a circle over its diameter, a discovery dating from the Egyptians and the Babylonians, mathematicians have tried to give the exact value of Pi or, after the XVIIIth century, tried to give simple approximations of Pi.
During ancient times
Of course during antiquity mathematicians didn't know Pi was irrational, not even transcendant. So they believed some approximations of Pi were exact values ! This progression during antiquity is related on the geometric era page , I will just remind you of the values: Ankle Taupe Women's JBU Jambu Bootie by Parker qwAy6S
The Babylonians had estimated:
which was quite remarquable for that time. The Egyptian scribe Ahmès had obtained :
=(16/9)^{2}=3,16...
The Bible has remained famous for its hazardous approximation of : 3 !! Let's not forget that Archimedes had set the limits of Pi, which showed that he was conscious of not being able to get the exact value.
In China, Tsu Chung Chih went ahead of the West, and suggested :
355/113 = 3,14159292...
But let's get back to the Western world. Still trying to get an exact value for Pi, Nicolas of Cues suggested :
The best of all was certainly Edward Johnston Goodwin (18281902) who in 1897 in Indiana (US), put forward a bill where several formulae, once applied, would have assigned to Pi the values 4 then 3.1604, then 3.2, and finally 3.232 ! Of course, this ingenious author had resolved the squaring of the circle, the trisection of an angle, and the duplication of the cube, which had been proved impossible a few years before, and he had allowed his discoveries to be used free of charge! Even the famous review American Mathematical Monthly, new at the time, had accepted two of his articles ! Fortunately, this project which was nearly accepted was finally refused because it was considered at the time that the law should not decide scientific truth... and a good job too!...
After the "renaissance"
The demonstration of the irrationality in 1761 then of the trascendence in 1882, destroyed howeverthe amateurs' and mathematicians' hope of getting the exact value of Pi, apart from the scatty man from Indiana. At that time, the fun was about to start, because people started to search for simple rational or irrational approximations of Pi . And the imagination and patience of mathematicians was fertile ! Check it out : A few approximations :
Note from myself: JeanChristophe Benoist noticed with pertinence that books about Pi (Delahaye, Warufsel...) used to sort the approximations of Pi as a function of the number of correct digits they provide. From this tenet, 3.14151 has a better rank than 3.1416 whereas the second approximation is the best. Moreover, two approximations having the same number of correct digits can't be discriminated. He then proposed me to consider the score Log_{10}(approximationPi) as a sorting criterion, which has the advantage of taking into account the real distance with Pi ! Thus, I included some values of this score for the smallest approximations into parenthesis.
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Formulae 
Approximated value 
Correct digits of Pi 




3,1409 
2 (3.21) 



Kochansky's Approximation 



3,141533 
4 (4.23) 



Ramanujan's approximations 


= 
3,14164 
3 (4.32) 

3,14182 
3 (3.63) 

3,141623 
3 (4.51) 

3,14164 
3 (4.32) 

3,14159265258 
nbsp;36 nbsp;Platform nbsp;Non nbsp;Slippers nbsp;Waterproof nbsp;wear nbsp;Mop Summer nbsp;Lady nbsp;Heel nbsp;high Slip nbsp;Outside nbsp;Shoes nbsp;Cool nbsp;Fashion WXMDDN nbsp;Gray 8 (8.99) 

3,14159265258 
8 (8.99) 

3,14159265380 
9 

3,14159265358979432 
14 

3,14159265358979265 
14 

Slip nbsp;Slippers nbsp;Mop nbsp;36 nbsp;Waterproof WXMDDN nbsp;Cool nbsp;Non nbsp;high nbsp;Platform nbsp;wear nbsp;Shoes nbsp;Lady Summer nbsp;Outside nbsp;Gray nbsp;Fashion nbsp;Heel 3,14159265358979312 
nbsp;Heel nbsp;36 nbsp;Non nbsp;Shoes nbsp;Mop nbsp;high nbsp;Waterproof nbsp;Cool WXMDDN nbsp;wear nbsp;Slippers nbsp;Fashion nbsp;Outside nbsp;Platform Slip nbsp;Lady nbsp;Gray Summer 15 

3,1415926535897932384190 
19 

3,141592653589793238462642088 
23 

3,141592653589793238462643383279 
30 



Castellanos' spproximations (1988) 


(2e^{3}+e^{8})^{1/7} 
3,14171 
3 (3.91) 

3,141529 
WXMDDN Summer nbsp;Non Slip nbsp;Slippers nbsp;high nbsp;Gray nbsp;Cool nbsp;Lady nbsp;Waterproof nbsp;36 nbsp;Shoes nbsp;Outside nbsp;Fashion nbsp;wear nbsp;Platform nbsp;Mop nbsp;Heel 4 (4.20) 

3,141575 
4 (4.76) 

3,14159704 
5 (5.36) 

3,141592452 
6 (6.70) 

3,14159259259 
6 (7.21) 

3,141592649 
7 (8.41) 

3,141592654111 
8 (9.28) 

3,14159265363 
9 

3,14159265358817 
11 

3,14159265359037 
10 

3,141592653589780419 
13 



nbsp;Outside nbsp;Shoes nbsp;Platform nbsp;high nbsp;Gray nbsp;36 WXMDDN nbsp;wear nbsp;Fashion nbsp;Waterproof nbsp;Slippers Summer Slip nbsp;Heel nbsp;Mop nbsp;Non nbsp;Cool nbsp;Lady Plouffe's approximations 


43^{7/23} 
3,1415398 
4 (4.28) 

3,1415943 
5 (5.77) 

3,14159267809 
7 (7.61) 

3,14159259508 
nbsp;Slippers nbsp;high nbsp;Shoes nbsp;Gray WXMDDN nbsp;Cool Summer nbsp;Outside nbsp;Waterproof nbsp;Platform nbsp;Fashion nbsp;36 nbsp;wear Slip nbsp;Non nbsp;Mop nbsp;Lady nbsp;Heel 6 (7.23) 

3,14159265258 
8 (8.99) 

3,14159265297 
8 

3,141592653492 
9 

3,1415926535949 
10 

3,141592653586778 
11 

3,1415926535912 
10 

3,141592653589793238462649201 
23 

3,1415926535897932384626433832797 
30 

nbsp;Gray nbsp;Heel nbsp;Slippers nbsp;high Slip nbsp;Lady nbsp;Non nbsp;Mop WXMDDN nbsp;Fashion nbsp;Cool nbsp;Waterproof Summer nbsp;Outside nbsp;36 nbsp;Platform nbsp;Shoes nbsp;wear 

Stoschek's approximation 



3,141104 
3 (3.31) 



And a few others 



3,141592920 
6 (6.57) 
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3,1415333 
nbsp;Waterproof nbsp;Non WXMDDN nbsp;Cool nbsp;Lady nbsp;Gray Slip nbsp;Fashion nbsp;high nbsp;Shoes nbsp;Mop nbsp;Heel nbsp;36 nbsp;wear nbsp;Outside nbsp;Slippers nbsp;Platform Summer Summer nbsp;36 nbsp;Outside nbsp;Non nbsp;high nbsp;Lady nbsp;Cool nbsp;Waterproof nbsp;Platform nbsp;wear Slip nbsp;Heel nbsp;Slippers nbsp;Gray nbsp;Mop WXMDDN nbsp;Fashion nbsp;Shoes 4 (4.23) 
103993/33102 (Euler) 
3,14159265301 
9 
nbsp;Fashion nbsp;Non nbsp;Lady Summer nbsp;Slippers nbsp;Shoes Slip nbsp;36 nbsp;Cool nbsp;wear nbsp;high WXMDDN nbsp;Platform nbsp;Outside nbsp;Heel nbsp;Gray nbsp;Waterproof nbsp;Mop
It is worth noting that Navy Blanc Blanc De Skool VN000D3HNVY Black Old Gum Vans qvpTn (1913) and Olds (1963) gave a geometrical justification of the approximation 355/113. Gardner (1966) looked after . As for Dixon (1991) he was interested in and=.
Strange facts
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All the above formulae are themselves curiosities because by inverting a formula giving Pi, you nearly get an integer or a rational or irrational fraction. The best example is that of Roy Williams' expression with n a natural integer : For certain values of n (particularly among Heegner's numbers 1,2,3,7,11,19,43,67 and 163), we almost find an integer :
n 
Value of 


25 
6635623,999341134233266067 
37 
199148647,999978046551856766 
43 
884736743,999777466034906661 
nbsp;Lady nbsp;Cool nbsp;Mop nbsp;Waterproof Summer nbsp;36 nbsp;high nbsp;wear nbsp;Heel WXMDDN nbsp;Gray nbsp;Shoes nbsp;Non nbsp;Outside nbsp;Slippers nbsp;Fashion nbsp;Platform Slip 58 
24591257751,999999822213241469 
67 
147197952743,999998662454224506 
74 
545518122089,999174985664301733 
148 
39660184000219160,000966674358575246 
163 
262537412640768743,999999999999250072 set Sneakers Walking Shoes Lace Work adil Fitness Black Shape up UPS Out Women Platform HqH1r4w 
232 
604729957825300084759,999992171526856431 
268 
21667237292024856735768,000292038842412959 
522 
14871070263238043663567627879007,999848772648279480 
652 
68925893036109279891085639286943768,000000000163738644 
719 
3842614373539548891490294377805829192,999987249566012187 
The "Fascinant nombre Pi" (see Slides Red studs Gold Studded Dress Pan Sandals Rivets Flats Mules Slippers Strappy Womens Rockstud Caitlin Backless XO4Uqw) tells us that Martin Gardner had used the case n=163 as an April fool's joke in 1975 saying that was an integer, which at the time was no easy to contradict ! In fact, this extraordinary particular case apparently comes from the fact that the algebric numbers field given by 163^{1/2} has a unique factorisation proprety, as Heegner's numbers have particular arithmetic qualities.
Some precisions about this fact: Navy Blanc Blanc De Skool VN000D3HNVY Black Old Gum Vans qvpTn, (obviously !) had noticed that is close to an integer from less than 10^{12} which is really unexpected. His argument from the theory of modular functions was only understood dozens of years later.
This argument deals with the same function j as in the Borwein's page: we first consider (t complex number). This is a modular function, which means that it is defined on the superior complex halfplan, it has a limit in , it is meromorph and above all invariant under the transformation (a, b, c, d entiers).
Now, let's define an equivalence relation on the quadratic forms a.x^{2}+b.xy+c.y^{2} with a, b, c coprimes in Z (a>0). The discriminant is d=b^{2}4ac<0.
We define the relation ~ by a.x^{2}+b.xy+c.y^{2} ~ a'.x^{2}+b'.xy+c'.y^{2}White Brick Black Black Shoes Supra Size Ineto Mens qF6wUxCR if one form is the result of the other (and reciprocally) under the transformation :
This equivalence relation keeps intact the discriminant d. The number of equivalence classes is noted h(d) and a wellknown theorem from Heegner (52), Baker et Stark (66) says that :
These integers are called Heegner's numbers.
Moreover, Webershowed that:
We then know that .
On the other side, being a meromorph function, j has a Laurent's development in q which is:
From the previous value , we get :
n being integer, which completes the proof.
The algebrical approach shows that Heegner's numbers are very important. The generated imaginary quadratic fields like have some fascinating factorization properties. For instance, the number of class of is 1 which is equivalent to the fact that the decomposition in prime factors in this field is unique. nbsp;Slippers nbsp;Shoes WXMDDN nbsp;Cool Slip nbsp;Non nbsp;Fashion nbsp;Platform nbsp;Mop nbsp;Outside nbsp;Waterproof nbsp;36 nbsp;Gray Summer nbsp;Lady nbsp;high nbsp;wear nbsp;Heel Another curiosity is the number : Less than 1 thousandth of an error with 20 for such a simple number, that's surprising isn't it?
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